Frequently asked questions



  • What can I do with a treebank?

If you read Norwegian, check out NorGram-tall, a blog with a collection of studies based on the Norwegian treebank NorGramBank.

  • Do I need to log in to use INESS?

You don't need to log in to search and view treebanks which are completely open. However, some treebanks have a more restrictive license which requires that users are identified as academic users and/or explicitly accept conditions of use. Restrictions may be necessary because of copyright and personal data issues as protected by law.

  • Why can't I log in through eduGain?

The eduGain login option has been superseded by the CLARIN Service Provider Federation (SPF) which covers a large number of federated ID services in many countries.

  • What does INESS do with my username and password?

INESS never receives your username and password. We receive sufficient information from your ID provider to determine whether you are authorized to use resources with certain restrictions and to contact you if needed. See also the privacy policy.

  • Who provides and funds INESS?

INESS is provided by the University of Bergen. It is supported by a grant from the Research Council of Norway.

  • What does it cost to use INESS?

Access to INESS via its web interface is provided free of charge. We also provide basic user support. However, if you require extensive support or a new functionality, we may require a cooperation agreement including a financial contribution.

  • How can I upload my treebank to INESS to make it searchable?

At this moment, users cannot upload treebanks through the web interface. Please send us an email so we can provide assistance. Be sure to provide clear information about your treebank format, as well as other metadata and licensing information.

  • Can I import the ambiguous results of my own XLE grammar into INESS and use the INESS tools to disambiguate the analyses and/or align parallel analyses?

Yes, this is possible. Send us an email with your request.

  • Can I use the same search in all treebanks?

INESS-Search has a common basic query language for all types of treebanks (see documentation). This allows users to search in different treebanks at the same time. However, some specialized features are only relevant in some treebank types. F-structure search, for instance, makes sense only in LFG treebanks.

  • What is the relation of INESS to CLARIN?

INESS is part of the CLARINO Bergen Center. CLARINO is the Norwegian part of CLARIN. INESS provides metadata and persistent identifiers which are compatible with CLARIN standards.
In addition, INESS is certified as a K-center in CLARIN, in cooperation with LINDAT (Prague). The latter offers expertise in, access to, and search in a wide range of dependency treebanks.

  • I cannot find an answer to my question here, is there a User Forum?

Yes, the User Forum is here.

  • How can I contact INESS?

You can send an e-mail to

Design & implementation: Paul Meurer, CLARINO Bergen Centre, 2022