Welcome to INESS



INESS is the Norwegian Infrastructure for the Exploration of Syntax and Semantics.

A reimplementation of INESS featuring an improved user experience is now available as a beta version at .

Not all functionality of the original INESS platform, which continues to be functional, is available in the new interface. (Notably, there is no support for parallel treebanks, HPSG treebanks, and LFG treebank disambiguation.) More functionality will be added on request.

Feedback is welcome!

This infrastructure provides access to treebanks, which are databases of syntactically and semantically annotated sentences. Treebanks are available in many forms. They can be used to address a wide range of linguistic questions, to develop language resources (such as dictionaries and grammars) and to develop language technology applications.

INESS offers an open, interactive, language independent platform for building, accessing, searching and visualizing treebanks. All its functionality can be used online through a web browser.

INESS hosts treebanks for many languages, including treebanks which have been created by others. The INESS project has also built its own large treebank for Norwegian, NorGramBank, obtained by parsing automatically with an LFG grammar. Parts of NorGramBank have been efficiently manually disambiguated with the LFG Parsebanker, while the rest is stochastically disambiguated. To get an idea what one can do with NorGramBank, check out the blog NorGram-tall.

The XLE-Web interface can be used for interactive parsing and disambiguation with LFG grammars for various languages.

INESS is part of the CLARINO Bergen Centre and a site of the CLARIN Knowledge Center on Treebanking.

How to cite INESS and NorGramBank

If you use any INESS services in your research, for instance, to search or annotate treebanks, we request an acknowledgement to INESS, mentioning the webpage and the following reference in your publications:

Victoria Rosén, Koenraad De Smedt, Paul Meurer, and Helge Dyvik. An open infrastructure for advanced treebanking. In Jan Hajič, Koenraad De Smedt, Marko Tadić, and António Branco (eds.) META-RESEARCH Workshop on Advanced Treebanking at LREC2012, pages 22–29, Istanbul, Turkey, May 2012.

Additionally, if you use NorGramBank in your research, we request the following reference in your publication:

Helge Dyvik, Paul Meurer, Victoria Rosén, Koenraad De Smedt, Petter Haugereid, Gyri Smørdal Losnegaard, Gunn Inger Lyse, and Martha Thunes. 2016. NorGramBank: A ‘Deep’ Treebank for Norwegian. In Nicoletta Calzolari, Khalid Choukri, Thierry Declerck, Marko Grobelnik, Bente Maegaard, Joseph Mariani, Asunción Moreno, Jan Odijk and Stelios Piperidis (eds.), Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’16), pages 3555–3562, Portorož, Slovenia. ELRA.